Dictatorship Is the Best Path to Development
Dictatorship does not necessarily result in development, defined by human well-being(which incorporates education, health, income, and safety from internal and external threats)and even by personal discipline. Furthermore, there is no conclusive evidence proving that either dictatorship nor democracy cause development. Nonetheless, we will prove dictatorships incorporate more control over the variables that define development so in consequence are a better course to get to it. Also, that dictatorships guarantee the Social Order, which is a very necessary prerequisite for any kind of economic accumulation process to be feasible. A form of government in which absolute power is concentrated in a dictator or a small clique, dictatorships are subject to retaliatory actions. We propose this should end.
Democratic nations should not take retaliatory actions against dictatorial governments in order to diminish their legitimacy, their power, and to promote their overthrown in exchange for a democratic alternative. This actions account for the diminishing of economic & diplomatic relations with Burma and Iran and the cut of economic aid to Honduras’ “de facto” Government.
We will prove that these sort of actions can only undermine the possibility of development finally kicking in this countries, since dictatorship is the best way to achieve it.
Dictatorships breed development though efficient and straighfoward decision making
Dictatorships fare better when these factors are taken into account. They are superior to democracies in the expediency in which they can arrive to policies and implement laws that could resolve problems. They can easily calibrate the institutional and legal framework, since they don't need a political coalition for passing or repealing acts. This framework can be efficiently managed, ignoring the special interests that need to be relatively reconciled in democracies, through a time consuming process. So a pro-development government has greater capacity to modernize a society with a dictatorship than under a democracy.
After the 1936 Spanish elections, the Republican coalition, was formed out of more than ten parties including anarchists, socialists, and social democrats. Supported by Basque nationalists, and other separatist movements, they seized power. Reaching agreement among them was nearly impossible. Under Francisco Franco, all rightist factions were unified. His uncontested leadership managed to take the necessary step to maintain a unified Spain, survive a blockade, and start the so called "Spanish Miracle". [[http://countrystudies.us/spain/22.htm De Menses, Filipe Ribeiro Franco and the Spanish Civil War, p. 87, Routledge]]
Because the can do as they please, dictators can surround themselves and employ technocrats instead of popular personalities, which is helpful in modernizing the nation even when the majority of the population are reluctant to abandon their traditional ways. Dictators do not need to ensure the support of or appeal to a specific constituency by including them (for example by picking a Latino for the supreme court)[[http://www.lasvegassun.com/news/2009/aug/07/risking-hispanic-vote/]]. In that sense, a dictator's decisions will have a tendency to represent his own economic interest in development, rather than the popularity or political affiliation of the decision.
To do the latter is an inefficiency displayed widely in democracies. Here, the head of government must surround himself with a cabinet composed of fellow party members and allies, regardless of their credentials, in order to secure parliamentary and electoral support, which means he cannot go against the views of the people, who sometimes elect a candidate because they espouse their own views, because they belong to the same clan, or even because they are simply popular and charismatic.
We want to contrast examples of two Latin American countries. The first is Chile, a dictatorship where Pinochet, helped by the Chicago Boys (advisors) applied a plan consisting in privatizations. The consequence was known as the Chilean Miracle.
The second, Venezuela, was a consolidated democracy in 1989 when the President, Carlos Andrés Pérez, employed a cabinet full of technocrats from the venezuelan Institute IESA (the IESA boys) who, just like the Chicago boys prescribed a treatment of free market and privatizations. But the president had run on a platform of populism.
Dictatorships manage crisis situations well. Most of the modern societies, even liberal democratic systems have states of emergency, states of siege, or martial law to deal with catastrophes, crisis and threats. Examples of Martial Law include: Germany and Japan after World War II. The American South during the early stages of Reconstruction, the Canadian October Crisis of 1970. A State of emergency was declared in France due to the 2005 civil unrest[[http://www.nytimes.com/2005/11/08/international/europe/08cnd-france.html]], and in 2005 in the US state of Louisiana due to hurricane Katrina.[[http://en.allexperts.com/e/s/st/state_of_emergency.htm]]This special states are very similar to dictatorships, but they are justified because, these are the largest threats to the well-being of their citizens, and swift decisions have to be made to solve them. For developing nations their lack of development is a very big threat to the well-being of their citizens, and so swift decision making is crucial to solve this as well. All the countries that have it and have resolved crisis with that:
A system that relies on the wise choice of a single person or clique to represent the interest of the whole country is wishful thinking. That any development that appears as a result of those choices will have no safety net when the dictators makes a false decision during the early stage of development.
The big assumption here is that these Dictators are rational, wise, and not materialistic (given by the proposition’s claims). While power hungry general are able to perform a coup d’etat (Which how the dictators from the example stated earned that power) and rule through Dictatorship, the rational, wise, and not materialistic person (read: the perfect ruler) will unlikely be able to take control of power (or even join the military at the very beginning) through those method, making the path of dictatorship lacking any competent candidates.
Thus, the expectation that a dictator will consecutively implement bullet proof decision making (without needing a proper check and balance mechanism) is a phenomenon that can only be categorized as a Miracle. Hence the famous Spanish and Chilean Miracle we all have heard about.
Dictatorship is a good breeding ground for personal discipline and order
Evidence of this argument, is Taiwan, where Confucianism is the primarly ideology promoted in the society. This ideology focuses on the importance of interpersonal relationships based on the performance of individual roles in society and also based on fixed principles of authority. Trans-cultural nursing by Madeleine M. Leininger and Marilyn R. McFarland. [[ http://books.google.co.ve/books?id=Bp9QQvEn_9gC&pg=PA420&lpg=PA420&dq=patriarcal+and+hierarchical+values+TAIWAN&source=bl&ots=82RFVGQrjK&sig=LVZQTPRYFq9QBymL7q0Rarpslo4&hl=es&ei=pWaCSu_qJOavtgeK5_3KCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1#v=onepage&q=&f=false ]]. Resulting in a productive based society triggering the continues economic growth showed in the last years.[[http://www.bls.gov/news.release/prod4.nr0.htm]]
Discipline is a description of the way we act in pursuit of our goal. Dewey put discipline as “A person who is trained to consider his actions, to undertake them deliberately, is in so far forth disciplined. Add to this ability a power to endure in an intelligently chosen course in the face of distraction, confusion, and difficulty, and you have the essence of discipline.” [[Dewey, John. Democracy and Education. 1926]]
Three key words/phrases in disciplines are, consider, deliberate, and “an intelligently chosen course in the face of distraction, confusion, and difficulty”. These three keys refer to one main points, that the disciplines comes from the person itself, not by the pressure of the government. Disciplines is the backbone of any constitutional countries to exist. Disciplines made an order that came from public awareness, not by public security. Thus, the obedience of the citizen will comes from the consent of each citizen, not by a pressure from the dictator.
The evidence of this argument is Taiwan, a democratic country who put Confucianism value as the moral value of the country, to sustain its democracy. It resulting in a productive based society triggering the continues economic growth showed in the last years. [[http://www.bls.gov/news.release/prod4.nr0.htm]]
Dictatorships better control the variables of human development
Dictatorships can control the health and education of its population better because they can decide how to allocate the resources (funding, students, professors, infrastructure, supplies) to prepare new professionals for the health and education sectors; and they can determine the curricula, salaries and place of employment in a way democracies can't.
Cuba, the sole remaining dictatorship in Latin America has more doctors per capita than the average western nations, including the US and provides education advisors to several developing nations, and one of the best human development indexes in the region, while its culturally, socially, geographically and historically similar neighbors, who turned to democracy have a shortage of doctors and teachers and average a lower human development index. A dictators survival depends on economic success of his country. There is a need to arrive to a balance between predation (taxation of subjects) and the repression necessary to avoid the risk of insurrection. He can't take away too much or repress too much lest he is deposed. There is evidence of this incentive to have economic welfare in the case of Nicaragua where was “a growing disparity in land distribution and gaps between the rich and the poor led to increasing discontent”, which ended up in an ”alienation of the middle class and evaporation of business support for the regime” . And on 19 July 1979 the Sandinista guerrillas overthrew the dictatorship and implemented a leftist revolutionary government” overthrowing the Somoza Dictatorship. For a dictator, the economic success of his country ensures: 1. That the citizens have money he can extort. 2. That the citizens have more material wealth to risk in a transition to another government. On this point Lionel Artige says "Then, people have to compare their welfare in dictatorship with that in anarchy. If the households consider that repression is too high and their economic welfare too low, they may plan an insurrection and depose the dictator" and 3. That they are generally happier and more content.
Dictatorships resist to income Redistribution Pressures
The impact of doing this can be appreciated in the contrast between the steady growth of the Asian Tigers: Taiwan, South Korea, Hong-Kong and PR China, where political authoritarianism was coupled with the opening to free markets; and the failure of leftist populist governments in Latin America, where the attemp was made to tackle income redistribution through macroeconomic means, in the case of Allende in Chile and the first term of Garcia in Peru, which achieved the opposite of what they set out to accomplish, resulting in massive political instability, high inflation, violence and even a coup[[Wintrobe,The Political Economy of Dictatorship,2000]]
Countries applies certain policies that can further develop the economy, but the question is what kind of economic advice do they take NOT what kind of government do they have. Whatever relevant examples put regarding the success of any dictatorship can only be accredited to the expert behind those policies and not because of the form of government.
Furthermore, the example of Taiwan, South Korea, Hong-Kong, and PR China should be omitted from the argument as they do not fit the definition of a 'Dictatorship'.
Dictatorship is a more economic institution: elections are a luxury reserved for developed countries.
For example, the most recent US presidential election had a price tag of US$ 5 billion[[http://ibnlive.in.com/news/us-presidential-election-could-cost-more-than-5-bn/76556-2.html?from=search-relatedstories]], with that money an NGO such as Brad Pitt's "Make It Right" project could build more than 33.300 houses, (at $150,000 per house)[[http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/03/arts/design/03pitt.html]] for the people of New Orleans that were affected by hurricane Katrina in 2005, and house approximatelly 150,000 people in total (5 people per house), which is by far an important aspect of life for those affected by Katrina, than presidential elections could ever be.
An election cannot be measured or compared with the capital they take.
An election is a good indicator on how the government has performed and its future within the country. It is an example of a good 'social contract' mechanism that does not exist in a dictatorship. Every action of the government is to be accounted for at the end of the term, this gives the government in power a sense of RESPONSIBILITY when entering and during a term.
Therefore one should not value the cost of election by the capital required to conduct an election but by the cost of what would happened if we take out that election. It is in this sense that we believe that election is really the luxury of a democratic government.
Dictatorships regimes can be a path for countries move on from civil wars and focus on development
A clear example of this was lived in Latin America, that saw the years immediate to its independence submerged in internal struggles among "Caudillos" (warlords) who wanted to keep their local fiefdoms or overthrow and replace the President at the time. This went on until a caudillo could take full control of the nation, one example being Venezuela: "In Venezuela, a long period of caudillismo and political instability was ended by the dictatorship of Juan Vicente Gomez 1908 and 1935" [[Acemoglu, Robinson, Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy, 2005.]]
For example; The overthrown of Cuba’s Batista Dictatorship regime was only continued by Fidel Castro's Dictatorship regime. Although the opposition has stated a good example of human development in Cuba currently, it doesn’t prove that life in Fidel’s time is better than Batista’s time. Therefore, this argument is only valid for the motion “Dictatorship is the best path to end civil wars”
Dictatorships have a flexibility in economic policy that breeds growth
Dictatorships can define and establish a pro-investment legal and institutional framework (e.g. Low taxes, subsidies, ensuring economical liberties) without facing the boundaries that a Democracy encounters on it's political process (e.g. opposition from parties or coalitions ideologically opposed to these measures). Once established, this institutional framework motivates Foreign Direct Investments, which increases the demand of labor and other internal supplies,[[http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/55/4/40848277.pdf]] which creates a virtuous circle towards significant and homogeneous income growth, which is directly linked to the development of societies.[[http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/3563/]]
China, under the command of a strict political regime that has open discretion on the economic policies of the country, has been implementing sustained institutional reforms towards promoting Foreign Direct Investments. This produced the improvement of more than 400MM Chinese citizens that moved from poverty to the mid class. In the last 10 years, the country has had an average GDP growth rate of 10% per year; the highest sustained Economic Growth Rate in the world.[[http://econ.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTDEC/EXTRESEARCH/0,,contentMDK:20634060~pagePK:64165401~piPK:64165026~theSitePK:469382,00.html]]
This argument should not be interpreted to show that Dictatorship is more clever in economics than other form of government; the capabilities to attract Foreign Direct Investment, establish a Pro -Investment framework,etc. It should only be interpreted that the Dictatorship "applied a different approach" than the previous government - whom probably because of their incompetence was disposed by the military coup d'etat.
If the question is "what kind of government applies the best economic policy for development?", then Dictatorship is surely not the number one right answer for that. Dictatorship only succeed in implementing whatever policies they have in mind without opposition.But it does not show that Dictatorship is the answer for economical problem in a country.
We would also like to reject the notion of China being a dictatorship; even though Chairman Mao is the central figure of the Chinese Communist Party, he is not above the law. There is an existing mechanism that conducts a 'check and balance' inside the system which is the Politburo Standing Committee which maintains a separation of power in the government.
Dictatorship helps achieve social stability
On the other hand, dictatorships are the most stable form of government due to no dilution of power and because the opposition has no real chance to become government, a consequence of this is that they avoid electoral turmoil altogether.
In addition, the social control exercised by dictatorships allow them to prevent financial losses due to strikes, riots, and keep low criminality rates. Thus providing a bargain for investors.
The PAP subjugates politics in Singapore since its independence in 1965. Singapore has been tagged as a de facto one-party state and several foreign analysts and internal political parties have accused the PAP of taking harsh action against opposition parties to discourage and impede their success. One former Singaporean Foreign Minister asked: “How many Singaporeans really want free speech anyway? They want orderliness, a decent living” (S. Rajaratnam quoted in Bellows,1989:153) [[http://www.statsvitenskap.uio.no/konferanser/nf09/kp2/chk.pdf]]
Thus dictatorships are better at safeguarding order and stability against anarchy than democracies. And without stability, the lack of confidence may translate in stifled development, since they are closely related [[http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200504/22/eng20050422_182327.html]].
In a same objectivity not to put stigma on dictatorship and describing it as a totalitarian ruling party, it is also unfair to put bad democracy example as an evidence of the flaw of democracy itself. Yes, the example of the proposition is valid, but the example is just an example of fail implementation, but not a fail mechanism.
The problem of the democracy system only appears when the implementation is bad, as been showed by the mexican election on 2006. But the uncertainty of succession, is surely bring the country into jeopardy, whether the dictator is good or bad.
The evidence of that is Yugoslavia. Having timocrat dictator leader, Joseph Broz Tito, who successfully lead Yugoslavia cannot helps the country to escape from succession failure, which lead to the end of Yugoslavia country [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josip_Broz_Tito]].
Singapore is popular as a democratic country who implement repressive action, which is claimed is done based on the consent of its citizen. The example given shows the evidence of the consent of citizen toward the repression, but do not necessarily mean that Singapore is controlled by dictatorship. Singapore did the election [[http://www.elections.gov.sg/index.html]], was built based on constitution [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_Singapore]], and having a separation of power as check and balances mechanism. Hence, the evidence given was irrelevant to the argument.
The loger lasting and biggest economic miracles have ocurred under dictatorships
The radical dimension of this growth is shown in the following quote: "In 1950 South Korea was the economic equal of Kenya or Nigeria, while Taiwan was comparable to Egypt. But during the next 30 years the economies of Taiwan grew by leaps and bounds. By 1983, economists noted that 18 million people of Taiwan exported more goods than 130 million of Brazilians or 75 million Mexicans." [[Schaeffer, Robert K. Understanding Globalization: The Social Consequences of Political, Economic, and Environmental Change]] [[http://books.google.co.ve/books?id=bSTqbu7dWSYC&pg=PA289&lpg=PA289&dq=CHIANG+DICTATORSHIP+in+Taiwan&source=bl&ots=LaDTTxgoi_&sig=_xZFRUyrMXbUIzveLOBDLyFZ-uQ&hl=es&ei=m3mESofRLor-M_7KpdwL&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5#v=onepage&q=&f=false]]
This observed large variance in economic performance casts doubt on the effect of dictatorship on economic development. Because as history shows Dictatorial regimes can exhibit economic miracles and disasters [[Temple,The New Growth Evidence, 1999 http://www.econ.ox.ac.uk/members/christopher.bowdler/temple99.pdf%5D%5D. This put the significance of dictatorship to the economic miracles questionable.
For example; Hyperinflation in Zimbabwe happened under a dictatorship era [[http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23829883/]].
The miracles that happened seems fail to serve the ends of the development, including the freedom of the citizens. When a system can serve the MEANS of the development, but unable to serve the ENDS of the development, the system is a failure.
As quoted in many parts of this debate, Taiwan and South Korea, the Asian Tigers, demanded democracy to their country. During the process, South Korea even doubled the GNP per capita [[http://books.google.co.id/books?id=yHLVt8d4SvMC&pg=PA75&dq=Korea+democratization]], which shows, there were no significance of a dictatorship to the economic growth, since the same, and even better growth, happened in another system - Democracy.
Dictatorship outperforms democracy in growth and economic develpment
The main difference is that India took the democratic route[[http://sundaytimes.lk/070812/International/i512.html]] and China "established a one party dictatorship of the CCP to replace the one party dictatorship of the KMT"[[http://books.google.co.ve/books?ei=aiaFSoz5Dp2vtgekt8GuCg&ct=result&hl=en&id=CN-DMxl_XtEC&dq=china+%22one+party%22+1949+dictatorship&ots=WQ1JDQl2Tf&q=%22one+party%22+dictatorship#v=snippet&q=%22one%20party%22%20dictatorship&f=false]]. But "over the last thirty years, the Chinese state has successfully created physical infrastructure and delivered essential services" whilst the on other side "the Indian state despite rapid economic growth has deteriorated over time. Whether it is providing basic law and order, or ensuring sanctity of contract, or delivering public services, the stench of decline is hard to ignore." [[http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/1585]]
“The core of the matter is that radical reforms in China have paved the way for economic development and a number of non-economic changes which have benefited the population and provided a decent level of living for the large majority. This could not have been done without strong leadership bent on pushing such policies, perhaps even to the point of employing coercion against opponents”. [[http://books.google.com/books?id=QElPOh_hEKUC&pg=PA234&dq=requisite&ei=yuWESqjWE43AygSz6tS0Dg#v=snippet&q=versus%20authoritarianism&f=false]]
The result has been that the growth in India has relied more on the private sector as state capacity deteriorates, while China has a much better state infrastructure, but an unripe private sector. The thing is that creating markets is about setting a reasonable framework and letting go, but state capacity involves the creation of public institutions, and its respectives mechanisms for accountability, conflict management, etc, as a time will come when the private sector will no longer be able to compensate the lack of an efficient state when it comes to core state functions, for example. From this derives that the odds are still favor the prospect that China, rather than India will sustain its current growth rate.[[http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/1585]]
The Chinese case allows to analyze another interesting comparison: Russia and China. "The People's Republic of China and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics both faced lethal crises as they attempted to reform their communist systems" [[http://books.google.com/books?id=jTV25IJ4VQAC&pg=PA103&dq=perestroika+chinese+reform&as_brr=3&ei=HQOFSpb9F4XgywTL0NyHDg#v=onepage&q=perestroika%20chinese%20reform&f=false]]. Their situations were similar up until the Perestroika times, when they engaged on parallel but different initiatives to break from classical Communism. The Soviet Union engaged in political liberalization, with small changes occurring in the economic side. China went on with large and increasing economic liberties, but established no political rights or liberties. During the 90's, China did much better than Russia. We could argue that, since Russia was moving toward democratic institutions, Gorbachev couldn't take the necessary steps toward economic liberalization, because as a logical part of the democratic political process he couldn't break directly with the dinosaurs in the communist party, so in the end Russia didn't chose a path and stagnated. On the contrary, China could engage in a committed path toward economic liberty because it's governing group did not need to consult others. [[www.acg.ru/english/news2.phtml?m=2866]]
Thus China provides a unique opportunity to contrast the appropriateness of democratization as a path to development, as China twice chose dictatorship in a crossroads, and twice out-performed its similar neighbors. We can show in this argument that, being developing nations, China did much better than India, by staying as a one party dictatorship, rather than establishing a multi-party democracy; and then that, as a centrally planned economy with a one-party dictatorship in crisis, China was better off than the (now extinct) Soviet Union, and its successor states by transitioning into a free market one party dictatorship, rather than transitioning into a planned economy democracy.
When the example goes to countries like Singapore and China, the role of dictatorship method is questionable, because those are categorized in grey area. For example, the success factors of Singapore’s economy is unclear, whether it is because of the dominant party system (which is promoted as dictatorship by the proposition), or because of the liberalization of the economic system.
We should see that the economy of China on its classical age had slow growth. It is after Deng Xiao Ping took office, the economy of China is moving fast. Deng Xiao Ping is famous for the quote “It doesn't matter if a cat is black or white, so long as it catches mice”.
By this point, it is clear that the proposition is trying to contest between the black cat with the white cat, but bending it to become “A black and white cat that is smart in catching mouse” to win the case.
EVEN IF we put ourselves in their shoes and follow their dictatorship model, their deduction is still unclear. It is a big question, is dictatorship the MAIN ingredient of China’s success?
We believe that dictatorship DOES NOT outperform democracy, because in fact, to ensure growth and development, the (so-called) dictator amputates its authoritative power and giving it to the market.
Deng’s recipe of success has nothing to do with dictatorship, and it is also cannot be compared to the India.
The root of the problem of the economy was not about whether it is dictatorship or not, but more on its economic view. Yes, india was politically democratic, but it was also economically Leninist. Only in 1990s did India begin to reform its Leninist economy. China, however, began reforming its Leninist economy already in 1978.The standard contrast of china as evolutionary, democratic, and stagnant obscures what is clarified by understanding India as a political democracy with a largely Leninist economy. (Friedman,2001:102 [[http://books.google.co.id/books?id=gAj81vmbQvwC&pg=PA103&lpg=PA103&dq=china+economy+and+dictatorship&source=bl&ots=ggeVZ0FCmB&sig=cWPqHwIrurPjuxsYKZ50EODjhEk&hl=id&ei=aUSGSqaREImOkQW5uJmjBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5#v=onepage&q=&f=false]]
India's economy combined a logic of centralization with extensive state regulation, which included the control of inputs, financial resources, and key prices, thereby becoming the largest employer in the country. This socialist economic policies that is adopted in Nehru-Gandhi era that virtually bankrupted India by 1991.[[ Burns, John. India's Prime Minister Wages Uphill Campaign. New York Times, April 5, 1996 ]]
A dictatorship breeds order and it's a needed step for both development and liberal democracy
The historic experience shows that richer, more educated and more equal countries are more likely to be democratic. Countries which once reached a level of development and social maturity will then seek to be liberated from the restrictions imposed by the dictatorship using from passive resistance to insurrection against the system; transitioning from dictatorship to democracy, exemplified in cases such as Chile or Spain.
Robert Marsh, conducted a survey of 98 countries for the period 1955-70 and found that: "Political competition/democracy does have a significant effect on later rates of economic development; its influence is to retard the development rate, rather than to facilitate it. In short, among the poor nations, an authoritarian political system increases the rate of economic development, while a democratic political system appears to be a luxury which hinders development." From: The role of the state in development. [[http://books.google.com/books?id=QElPOh_hEKUC&lpg=PA40&dq=democracy%20exclusion&hl=es&pg=PA41#v=onepage&q=Marsh&f=false]]
To assert that "Dictatorship is needed in times for a centralization of decisions, when certain disaster requires ‘rapid decision making’" is exactly the propaganda used by Dictators to justify their act of taking power.
We want to reveal the truth about Chile that was misused as an example by the proposition. Chile was never a 'Miracle'. The "trick" behind it was uncover when later, during Pinochet's rule, Chile suffered two recessions, when the boom they thought was resulted because of economic growth was caused more by the increasing of foreign debt, loans, and investment. [[Constable, Pamela & Arturo Valenzuela. A Nation of Enemies: Chile under Pinochet, (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1991).]] Eventually Chile plunged into an economic depression, the worst in country's history, with a foreign debt of 17.2 billion dollars - one of the highest debt per capita in the world [[http://countrystudies.us/chile/67.htm]] leaving the country in chaos and paralyzing the economy.
This is an exact opposite to their claim that dictatorship through Pinochet in Chile was a "Miracle" that it should become the main reasoning to allow dictatorship country to run their economy.
Dictators have incentives to promote development and diminish social differences
Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson make the point on Economic origins of dictatorship and democracy [[http://books.google.com/books?id=gzdbfu55IGgC&lpg=PA37&dq=democracy%20equal&hl=es&pg=PA37#v=onepage&q=democracy%20equal&f=false]] that this equality might explain the fact that democracy was slow to arrive to South Korea and Taiwan, that were at the time growing rapidly, and hasn't arrived yet to Singapore. On the other hand, highly unequal societies are a breeding ground for revolution as the pressure comes for better redistribution. The more equal a society is the fewer incentives they will have to go through an uprising so then the ruling elite goes unchallenged, or, if they are challenged, they can make small redistribution gestures to appease people. The dictator or governing clique is much better off maintaining their citizens equal and happier. Of course equality is not enough. He also has an incentive to keep them making money and generating riches the dictator can predate on.
Just like democracies they have introduced social benefits, even though much smaller ones in quantitative or financial expression. There are certainly fundamental differences between social benefits under democracy and under dictatorship.
Under full-fledged representative democracy social payments or income redistribution are inbuilt in the power mechanisms of “one man – one vote” and form inevitable nature of society, without which society is essentially unthinkable.
Under dictatorship social benefits are not immanent to the structure of society and are rather exceptions formed according to an arbitrary judgment, prudence and free will of dictator. [[http://state.110mb.com/income_redistribution_state.htm]]
This means that even though there are examples of social benefits through the dictatorship, it is not comes from the system itself, as suggested by democracy, but are a subjective mechanism that comes from the dictator.
On the other hand, as various statistical tables can show, the poorest countries in the world are dictatorships. All the famines have happened under autocratic rule [[Dreze and Sen, Hunger and Public Action, 1989]].
So we can see that actuallt there are a great gap between any kinds of dictatorship, which is lay in a great spectrum of dictators's free will.
• Acceptable and Useful: One of our main points in this debate is that concentrating power in one person or a small clique is a widely accepted way in modern societies to solve problems and crisis and how for developing nations not being developed is a crisis that justifies doing exactly the same thing, through a dictatorship, so they can benefit from the swift and efficient decision making that it enables. The opposition chose to deal with this utilitarian argument by resorting to Ad Hitlerum and dismissing it as just propaganda, and even stating that "false decisions" would have no "safety net", when in reality, in times of trouble, accidents and mistakes, dictatorship IS a safety net in itself, and for democracies, institutionalized in the mechanisms mentioned before.
• Able and Willing: The opposition conceded to us "The evidence shows that dictatorship can gives better control to the variables" which includes determining the allocation of resources and defining the specifications, for services such as health care and education to improve the quality of life of the citizens or to spread the values needed to modernize; but they doubted that this power would be used appropriately. However, when the discussion centered around incentives, the opposition claimed that the dictator had strong incentives to stay in power, but since we explained how to stay in power a dictator must balance predation and repression, and yield enough results, and seek the best advisors available, since it is in its best interest to keep a functioning system.
• Flexibility and Timely:And since the dictators need not consult other bodies, or go through lengthy legislative or bureaucratic processes, they can take decisions in a timely manner, without the need to create political will, compromise due to political alliances, or postpone it for electoral reasons.
On the point of political freedoms, we consider that these may account as desirable features in a society, but they are not part of the concept of development, and they have the potential to undermine sustainable development (in terms of health, education, income and security) through the improper incentives raised by the democratic decision making mechanisms and institutions. This is specially true when the lack of development reaches such a low level that people is incapable of administering any political liberties in a productive fashion. We've seen evidence of this in the examples of Venezuela, Yugoslavia, the USSR and other cases commented throughout the debate.
Apart from this, both teams have agreed that it is economic and social development what leads to democratic demands from the citizens. This is so because it is when people have their basic needs well more than solved that they may start valuing the increase of political freedoms over further increases in development. In this context, democracy advocates should understand that the swiftest path to development (a prerequisite for a sustainable liberal democracy) is a dictatorship.
Our concerns about a popularity based system, that has incentives to yield results in between elections, to postpone unpopular yet necessary elections were only met with abstract appeals to check and balances, they both said that their unconcrete proposal would work just for having check and balances, and that ours wouldn't, partly for lacking them. The thing is, separation of powers is not a prerequisite to democracy, as parliamentary systems under the "Fusion of Powers" paradigm can attest.
Thus we have provided a system that is acceptable and useful to overcome difficulties, is willing and able achieve development, and is flexible and timely for doing so vs a system that can not properly function in a society not fully developed, and that hinders development, if judged on whether dictatorship has been proven to be the best path for development, the proposition team wins.
• Consistency and Definitions:
One of the most important aspects of the debate is making the appropriate definitions and being consistent with them.
On this count we contend that we defined dictatorship in a clear and constructive way from the beginning, using the definition: "A form of government in which absolute power is concentrated in a dictator or a small clique", we also explained, one by one, how each of our examples complied with our definition, when the opposition team felt the need to challenge our definition.
However, the opposition team defined dictatorship in a extremely narrow and nonconstructive way, as we stated in our response to their first argument, stating that "A Dictatorship is a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)". But we were further appalled upon reading the arguments the opposition team during their second speech, since not one the examples of dictatorships they provided out of their own free will and initiative (that is, without the proposition first presenting that example) met their own definition. When in argument no.4 they affirm that "This is the then same problem faced by dictatorship country such as Cuba, North Korea, Burma, and Libya", we realized that since Cuba, North Korea are one party systems under the Cuban Communist Party and the Korean Worker's Party, respectively, they do not fit their definition since there's not just a single person in charge, but rather a group (party), Burma doesn't either as it is run by a Military Junta known as the State Peace and Development Council, composed by 9 members (and not AN absolute dictator), and since they also establish that the dictator is not restricted by laws, constitution or opposition, then Gaddafi doesn't count either since he could not approve a measure on his own; then in argument no.5 they say "Or as some dictators comes to prove; changing the constitution to extend their term in office up to 2030" referring to the election where the abolition of terms limits in Venezuela was approved by the people, but if the dictator is "not restricted by a constitution" why would Chavez need the Venezuelan people to amend it? clearly because he IS bound to the constitution in order to stay in office, thus not qualifying under their definition either, and then they also attempted to peg Zimbabwe as a dictatorship, even though a regime where the opposition party can gain a majority in parliament is definitely restricted by the opposition, thus not qualifying under their definition. Not happy with this, they continued to further cripple their definition when they asserted that "the (so-called) dictator amputates its authoritative power and giving it to the market", thus further restricting "real" dictators only to market-hostile dictatorships, it could certainly be inferred that since their definition didn't even work for their examples, having a useful definition of dictatorship for the debate was not one of their priorities.
On top of this, the opposition performed a highly inconsistent classification of regimes, taking the big happy family of one party Communist regimes: Cuba, China, North Korea and the USSR, and splitting it between different foster homes, China to a non-dictatorial home, Cuba and North Korea to a dictatorial one, and the USSR seems to be unaccounted for, what is supposed to be the big difference between these single party, originally Marxist-Leninist, communist countries with regimes kick started by revolutions? They never explained that. And then, they put together the current authoritarian government of Venezuela, just recently taking its first steps into a de facto one party system, with the multi-party Zimbabwe, as dictatorships, but then fiercely -yet unsuccessfully- attempted to mis-characterize a country that has long been a de facto one-party system with "Singapore is popular as a democratic country who implement repressive action".
Since the Proposition clearly put forth the most constructive definitions in the debate, and was able to uphold them throughout, and also had a consistent way to categorize the relevant examples for the debate, if judged on the quality of the definitions and on consistency, the proposition wins this debate.
• Uniqueness of Dictatorships: One of the main themes of the debate is whether Dictatorships' ability to better control the variables of development (as conceded by the opposition when they agreed "dictatorship can gives better control to the variables") translates into better performance. There are two clear examples we provided, that the opposition failed to refute, and even conceded. Combining both examples we get that given the same ethnic, temporal, geographic, cultural, historical, linguistic, political, economic and religious background, dictatorship yields better results than democracy. First is Cuba, we first introduced this example in argument yes.3 , stating how this Latin American nation had a health system that rivaled with those of developed nations, and we also quoted how Cuba sends education advisers to other developing nations to aid them, being ahead of its Latin American neighbors. Both counts were conceded by the opposition in as "a good example of human development in Cuba currently", but the true importance of this example is that we they never even attempted to refute that what separates Cuba from its very similar Latin American brothers is the fact that they have not turned to democracy, thus making dictatorship the defining characteristic. On the other hand, for economic and political background, we relied in the comparison between PR China and India, and between PR China and the USSR. We argued that being two neighboring states, comparable both in age and in population size, differentiated only in that China turned to a one party system, and India to a multi party democracy; China had a more promising future on the base that they had a better bureaucracy, better state institutions and state services than India, who only had a better private sector, but that strengthening its private sector would be easier for China than it would be for India to build a proper public sector. The opposition decided to not only not refute our argument, but to strengthen it by establishing that both nations were also comparable in that they both started with Leninist economies (thus being even more comparable/similar), and that China implemented the needed economic reforms before India did, and also that India implemented them almost too late ("This socialist economic policies that is adopted in Nehru-Gandhi era that virtually bankrupted India by 1991"); this strongly supports our thesis that dictatorships make needed decisions in a more swiftly and timely manner than democracies. As for the comparison with the Soviet Union, in which we established that for a given dictatorship in crisis it was better to liberalize the economy than to democratize, seeing as how China had a better growth rate than its neighbor, and also how its neighbor collapsed and dissolved, unable to; the opposition did not refute this. Thus the proposition team clearly proved that dictatorships do have an advantage over democracies in securing and maintaining development, and if judged under this criteria the proposition should win.
Opposition defines ambiguity
It is important for us to clearly understand what a dictatorship is. A Dictatorship is a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.) [[http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=dictatorship]]. We would like to emphasize that Dictators are not restricted by either Law or opposition, making the dictators the ABSOLUTE leader of a country.
We would also like to point out that seeing the examples stated that categorizes different type of government to be called as a 'Dictatorship' has caused us to pend our counter arguments. We feel that this debate is not heading to the appropriate direction, and we will not release all of our arguments until the proposition receives our position on their debate.
With this we TMTHENU and TMTHENG representing Indonesia close our turn and welcomes the Venezuelans for their counter arguments and the interesting debate to follow.
Respect from Indonesia
Differences among dictatorial regimes are rooted on different aspects of their performance. They can differ on the magnitude of the governing clique, the military or civil nature of the authority, economic liberties granted for citizens, legality of political associations, legal framework, etc. The feature that all dictatorial regimes share is that they centralize public power and apply it without the people’s consent.
In the book “Comparative Politics”, Professor Danièle Caramani of the Institute of Political Science of University of St. Gallen identifies and explains many of the different regimes that can be considered dictatorships, since they accumulate absolute power in a small group or in a single person. These include military dictatorships, presidential dictatorships, and dynastic monarchies, among others. (http://books.google.com/books?id=sgYF9Us4UNIC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q=%22one%20party%22&f=false)
The definition proposed by the counterpart describes dictatorship as “a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)”.
This narrow alternative for a definition would indeed lead to an unproductive and unfair debate, since only regimes led by a single person could be accounted as dictatorships, excluding historical examples of dictatorial regimes, such as the the U.R.S.S. (led by the communist party in a one party dictatorship) or all of the Military Juntas in the 20th century.
Another incorrect assumption in the counterpart’s alternative is that lacking of a constitution or legal framework for the functioning of a regime is a necessary feature of a dictatorial one. If this was the case, we would have to consider the lack of formal constitutions in Israel, New Zealand and the United Kingdom to be somewhat undemocratic systems (even when political power in these countries is subject to the popular will). Burma and Pinochet’s Chile would be accounted as non-dictatorships because they had constitutions and laws [[http://www.thailawforum.com/database1/constmyanmar.html]] [[http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Chile/chile.html]], regardless on how intrusive and unjust they were, and of the fact that political power was centralized in a military “Junta”.
Again, what sets democracies and dictatorships apart from one another is whether political power is held by the people in general or by a small clique or even a single person. Moving away from that would only diminish the debate’s quality.
Another point we wish to make is one regarding the validity of our examples. What we called dictatorship are o were in the past in fact dictatorships. We are delighted to be given the opportunity of reaffirming why they fit our definition and provide examples of instances where they have been called so (not merely by us, but by reputed sources).
Singapore is a de facto one party system[[http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/01636600260046226?cookieSet=1&journalCode=wash]], the opposition has no real chance to rule. Since it's indepence in 1965 it has been governed by the same party (a small clique), the PAP. We cite about Singapore "Singapore’s dictatorship has delivered such riches that popular opposition is half-hearted..." [[http://neweconomist.blogs.com/new_economist/2006/01/book_review_eco.html]].
South Korea had a pro development dictatorship for almost twenty years only to be followed by another dictatorship that ended in a democratic election where the winning candidate was aligned with the previously ruling clique. The solid economic fundamentals of South Korean Economy were settled under dictatorship. On South Korea: "During 1987 popular opposition to South Korea's military dictatorship again burst into the streets of South Korean cities and into the U.S. news media." [[http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1132/is_n7_v39/ai_6261945/]]
On Taiwan: from 1927 to 1949 the KMT ruled over all of China in a one party system, and from then on only in Taiwan, staying as a one party system throughout the Taiwan Miracle[[http://www.taiwan.com.au/Polieco/History/ROC/report04.htm]] during the 1960s and 1970s, and it wasn't until 1986 when the first opposition party was allowed to exist, and until 1989 that multiparty elections were held[[http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/asia_pacific/2000/taiwan_elections2000/1986_1999.stm]]We also found this quote: Taiwan is evidence that a developing society can move peacefully from dictatorship to democracy and thrive." [[http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/display.article?id=10581]]
The People's Republic of China is a strong example not only in times of Mao's rule but also today, because they are ruled by the Chinese Comunist Party (small clique). The opposition rejected "the notion of China being a dictatorship; even though Chairman Mao is the central figure of the Chinese Communist Party, he is not above the law". On this subject we quote this:'A quarter of the world's population was thereby brought under communist rule, which within a decade had clearly become the personal rule of Chairman Mao Zedong." [[http://books.google.com/books?id=sgYF9Us4UNIC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q=%22one%20party%22&f=false]]
The opposition proposes that "There is an existing mechanism that conducts a 'check and balance' inside the system which is the Politburo Standing Committee which maintains a separation of power in the government". But this committee is formed by 5 to 9 people of the ruling party [[http://english.gov.cn/2007-10/22/content_781682.htm]], not precisely a big group of people. So if the power was in fact the Chairman plus up to 9 other people it's still means power was vested on 10 people which indeed classifies as a very small clique.
Chile was ruled by dictator Augusto Pinochet from 1973 till 1990. He ruled as the head of a military junta[[http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,91534,00.html]]. About Pinochet: "On March 11, 1998, in the National Congress in Valparaiso, the former dictator was sworn in as a lifetime senator -- a condition of the transition to democracy..." [[http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/longterm/pinochet/overview.htm]]
Venezuela was ruled by Perez Jiménez through a militar junta and then by him as an individual dictator. On Perez Jiménez: "Suspicious of outsiders, the dictator also concentrated power in the hands of six army colonels from his home state." [[http://www.nytimes.com/2001/09/22/world/marcos-perez-jimenez-87-venezuela-ruler.html]]
Spain had Generalísimo Franco from 1946 till 1975. On the news article regarding his dead we read: "Leaders of European countries have been guarded in their reaction the dictator's death and expressed hope that the new king would introduce modern democracy to Spain" [[http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/20/newsid_4421000/4421636.stm]]
On the example of Portugal not only is he a dictator but: "Former dictator Antonio Oliveira Salazar was chosen as the greatest Portuguese of all times by viewers of a TV show." [[http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/former-dictator-salazar-chosen-as-greatest-portuguese-of-all-time-by-tv-viewers-442008.html]].
And in case you intend to express doubt about the fact that Cuba is a dictatorship[[http://www.wpunj.edu/~newpol/issue19/farber19.htm]] here is a description of Castro given by the New York Times: "It was a striking tableau — two men in their 60s, one a sports journalist in coat and tie, the other a Communist dictator in uniform, raised in different cultures but both educated by Jesuits and able to find a common ground in sport." [[http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/15/sports/15mckay.html?_r=1]]
We want to reaffirm that the debate has had a clear definition of dictatorship from it’s beginning, and it has been proven that it is the more appropriate one. Also, the examples and evidences presented in our arguments perfectly fit the definition given.
In short, we don’t understand the opposition's concerns on the issue, or on how it is supposed to justify the fact that they didn’t establish any arguments on how other systems are hypothetically better than dictatorships for development, or on why the developed democracies should keep on undermining dictatorships in underdeveloped countries.
Lastly we applaud the opposition calls for a meaningful debate but we think that should include the presentation of their arguments in their first contest phase so that they may be discussed and responded, and excluding unreliable sources as Wikipedia[[http://lawprofessors.typepad.com/legalwriting/2008/11/texas-appellate.html]], which "anyone can edit".
Opposition baffled yet undeterred!
It’s clear that this debate draws a line between a Democratic government and a Dictatorship government. That because neither Democratic or Dictatorship government has a conclusive evidence of causing development, Democratic country should not apply sanctions against Dictatorship country.
We are then baffled, when the proposition redrew the categories of the world’s previous and current form of government and created a category of a Democratic yet Dictatorship country. We found that by doing this they are not defending the dictatorship meant in this debate but yet playing safe by defending successful democratic country and claiming it to be a dictatorship.
We are appalled when the proposition tries to associate single party system with Dictatorship (sin no.1) then goes further as acknowledging economic success due to their form of government (sin no.2), even though the form of government applied an opposing economic policy that they never explained to us (hiding the truth - sin no.3). Such is true in our former rebuttal against their point in "Dictatorship outperforms democracy in growth and economic development"
As we have stated; a single party system does not automatically means that it is a dictatorship. A country's economic success can be accredited to their liberalization of the economy but definitely not because of their single party system.
What we see here is the proposition, having conceded that Dictatorship cannot be defended, started to hijack examples from the the opposition. This happened when they were rooting for dictatorship and were against election (to save cost and pushes for development - propositions argument) but then suddenly annexed Singapore into their arguments with their single party system, which conducts Election!
This is a form of inconsistency that we wish to highlight from the proposition. We would now opt to silenced the proposition by bringing forth our arguments.
Note: Although the proposition tries to attack our credibility by commenting the source of our example (read wikipedia). We would like to affirm our position; that citing wikipedia for the examples given by us does not means that it is wrong but instead gives a source for a short history regarding the subject (Josip Broz Tito & The Constitution of Singapore).
The proposition never created a new category of a "democratic yet dictatorship government [sic] ". Rather, we clearly defined dictatorship from the beginning and we have stuck with that definition. The opposition ascribes us three sins: "We are appalled when the proposition tries to associate single party system with Dictatorship (sin no.1) then goes further as acknowledging economic success due to their form of government (sin no.2), even though the form of government applied an opposing economic policy that they never explained to us (hiding the truth - sin no.3)". Being truly pure of heart, we want to respond: regarding "Sin no.1" we clearly stated why one party systems are in fact a ruling clique with absolute power. No strangers to sinning, the opposition has conceded as dictatorship various one-party systems (North korea, Yugoslavia, Cuba) and a defacto one party system (Venezuela), but rejected countries that have it like China and Singapore, without really explaining the difference between both groups.
On "sin no.2" they misrepresent our assertion. We propose that dictatorships can make unpopular and necessary decisions that democracies cannot, as explained in our Chile's Pinochet vs Venezuela's Carlos Andrés Pérez example.
If we indeed sinned on "sin #3" we'll never know: it's not written clearly enough to answer.
On this point: "A country's economic success can be accredited to their liberalization of the economy but definitely not because of their single party system" we say that when you have the total control of the country you can enact liberalization by decree, while in democracy there is usually opposition from interest groups.
They claim we conceded dictatorships cannot can be defended yet we have defended dictatorships from all the spectrum, without any ideological or geographical bias. They claim that the example of Singapore is contradictory with our calling elections a luxury, because Singapore holds them. But there's is no contradiction between it being a luxury and Singapore wanting to spend on this luxury maybe to appease some critics. Which sometime dictatorships have to do.
On the subject of our hijacking Singapore to the side of dictatorships we answer: 1. Elections are not the only condition for democracy as several of the countries that the opposition acknowledged as dictatorships have regular elections (Cuba, Venezuela and Zimbawe).
On the subject of Libya we are perplexed by the opposition constant contradiction between the definition they insist is the one and the fact that their examples don't fall within it. Khadaffi in Libya tried to distribute oil revenues directly and the tribal liders didn't aprove. He didn't get his way. [http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2009/03/200933183343913989.html ]]
Lastly, on "silencing the proposition", we propose to the opposition that debates aren't about silencing, but about rebuttal, proving, reasoning and evidence.
Dictator’s decisions undermines the people and are unaccountable
Such a perfect example is of the Burmese military junta (that the opposition never defends); whom in their history produces policies such as:
1. The demonetization of their currency (kyat) [[http://books.google.co.id/books?id=WX-8MeW9ZasC&pg=PA228&lpg=PA228&dq=5+september+1987+burma+45+90&source=bl&ots=r3ReodvM_t&sig=xBYZaevbv3ZMYy9oouQmH4H-hao&hl=id&ei=RBmGSrP7HpCYkQWJ7-mmBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4#v=onepage&q=5%20september%201987%20burma%2045%2090&f=false]]
2. The movement of their capital [[http://english.aljazeera.net/news/asia-pacific/2006/11/2008525184150766713.html]]
3. The ban of motorcycles from the old capital (Yangoon) [[http://www.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=707]].
These unpopular policies are an example of decisions that are made possible in a Dictatorship - based on the pure 'wisdom' of the authoritarian leader.
It is in the spirit of the motion that the proposition has to show that “even if these dictators apply un-accountable and irregular decisions, it is permissible for the sake of development”.
They would also have to show the benefits of a dictatorship - AS A SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT - so that we should allow the blind faith of these people be put upon the so called ‘magicians’ that are expected to perform ‘miracles’ of development at the price of a more democratic and stable government.
Development is not possible when there is no succession in the government
A perfect example for this case would be of Yugoslavia. A country that was lead by a communist dictator after the second world war, Josip Broz Tito, under his command Yugoslavia managed to rebuilt itself from the ashes of war only to find itself disintegrated, overwhelmed with civil war and ethnic cleansing after the death of their dictatorship leader.
It comes to show that dictatorship operates a very dangerous form of government that cannot guarantee stability and safety for their people. That a personal rule is unlikely to be sustainable beyond one generation [[Ndulu, Benno J. , et.al. The political economy of economic growth in Africa1960-2000, 2007]].
This is the then same problem faced by dictatorship country such as Cuba, North Korea, Burma, and Libya.
Still, that wasn't the biggest mistake the opposition made on this point. The opposition is dead wrong about dictatorships not having successions. Examples abound, starting from North Korea which they introduced to the debate. There is going to be a second successor, from Kim Il-Sung to Kim Yong-Il, the grandson of the original dictator. [[http://www.thetimes.co.za/News/Article.aspx?id=1012277]]
Another example of a dictatorial government with a succession _where not a drop of blood was shed_ is Cuba. Raul Castro was designated as the successor of Fidel years ago and everything continues as it was. [[http://www.iammyownreporter.com/ElectionsInCuba.htm]],
In Myanmar the junta is planning multi-party elections in 2010. [[http://www.canada.com/victoriatimescolonist/news/story.html?id=da3ecc3a-3ba0-4426-875c-a888705e9eed]] d [[http://docs.google.com/gview?a=v&q=cache:-fnkjcbSlG8J:fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RS22742.pdf+cuba+succession&hl=es&gl=ve]].Which is sure to lessen the other team's worries. The USSR had a lot of sucessions pacific inside politburó. Lybia has never had a transition, so its difficult to diagnose. Maybe Khadaffi has a successor already in mind. Who knows.
Yugoslavia merits more time as here the interpretation of the events by the opposition is completely wrong. It was indeed lead by Tito, a communist dictator and he rebuilt it from the ashes but here is where they get it wrong because they give a false meaning to the word "after":
"only to find itself disintegrated, overwhelmed with civil war and ethnic cleansing after the death of their dictatorship leader" They present it as this happened just after. When in fact Tito's death happened in 1980 and it was eleven years after, in 1991, that the war began. The disintegration wasn't a consequence of the lack of a successor but of the adoption way too early of democracy.
There are many examples of dictatorships that are not personal but cliques (as in one party systems). The small group designates a leader so in those cases the succession is as smooth as silk.
Dictatorship priority is to maintain power
To achieve this end, any means is permitted, as the Machiavellian principal the dictators contended. By so, their logic comes as follow; no matter whatever emergency the state endures, securing the government is their priority. The ultimate goal for a dictatorship undermines not only the development but the financial position of a country.
This is true when compared to Democracies, Dictatorship tends to tax their populations more heavily and uses the surplus to pay for the extra military expenditures, in order to further secure their power.[[Boix, Carles. The Oxford handbook of comparative politics. 2007]]. Or as some dictators comes to prove; changing the constitution to extend their term in office up to 2030 [[http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/feb/16/hugo-chavez-indefinite-rule]]. The former comes to prove that any development programs comes only secondary compare to their objective to maintain power.
Dictatorship brings profit to dictators and its clique, but not to the citizens
During the 1951-90 period, dictatorships had higher annual rates of growth of GDP (4.42 percent) than democracies (3.95 percent). However, an average annual growth of GDP per capita was higher in democracies (2.46 percent) than in dictatorships (2.00 percent) [[Przeworski, Democracy and Development, 2000]].
It shows that the dictatorship system may bring wealth to the regime, but when we uncover the numbers we find out that most of the income didn't went to the welfare to the citizen. This is certainly unquestioned by the people of those dictatorship since the latter applied method of repression to run the country. Having said that it is clear that whatever development these dictatorship claimed to bring, it failed to prove that their government can guarantee transparency and may further mislead the country such as the example of Chile in 1982 [[Constable, Pamela & Arturo Valenzuela. A Nation of Enemies: Chile under Pinochet, (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1991).]].
Another example would be from Venezuela; During his presidency Juan Vicente Gomez, acting as a Dictator after a coup d'etat, used the money that comes from the sale of petroleum to increase the size of the army (protect the dictatorship's position) and to accumulate a personal wealth up to a third of the total oil revenue received by the country for 17 years. [[http://www.semp.us/publications/biot_reader.php?BiotID=476]]
Since underdeveloped countries have higher population growth rates than developed countries (some of the latter have even reduced their population over recent years), it is a foreseeable fact that dictatorships established in underdeveloped countries have a smaller GDP per capita than they developed peers. This fact doesn't deny that, in aggregate, underdeveloped dictatorships are growing more than democracies, which summed to the fact that underdeveloped countries are decreasing their population growth rate, is sketching a path towards economic convergence.
The counterpart fails to give evidence to back their assertion that dictatorships only bring income to the government and no welfare to the citizens (and does not explain what their concept of welfare means). Also, The counterpart falsely assumes that dictatorships lack incentives and mechanisms for incorporating the citizens needs into public policy.
Regarding the Gómez regime, the counterpart has three mayor blunders, based on the misunderstanding of the political context and the dynamics of the oil business. First, Gómez regime was based on the ideas of political positivism. These ideas, based on the anarchy and civil conflict that rose from the constantly flawed attempts to establish liberal institutions in the 19th century, stated that since Venezuelans were not able to administer political liberties, order should be the main priority of any national government. It would bring with it economic accumulation and the possibility to provide social services to citizens, so that they could become capable of administering further political liberties in the future.
To appease the country by the dismantling of the caudillos' power, Gómez required to unify the army, create the air force, construct a brand new road infrastructure to effectively communicate the different parts of the country with the Capital, and to increase the presence of internal security forces throughout the country. In the end, all this bred a unified country where there used to be independent sub-regions artificially joined. Achieving this goal of order up until his death, which could enable the country to achieve sustainable social development, logically demanded the most of the budget of the nation.
Following the death of Gómez, governments of General Eleazar López Contreras and of General Isaías Medina Angarita continued to apply the same political positivism ideas. Since order was ensured in the Gómez era, López started to develop social policies in the education and health fields (known as the "Plan de febrero"). Gral. Medina legalized many democratic political parties such as "Acción Democrática", and allowed the return of many politically exiled. He was overthrown by a pro-democratic military coup in 1945 that led to the first democratically elected government (which was to be overthrown three years later for a new military junta).
This proves that the order and security expenditure in the Gómez era was part of a bigger plan for sustainable development in Venezuela, that came out as an alternative to artificial and unfeasible democratic attempts in the 19th century, and that ended not because of its failure, but because of an early and violent imposition of democracy that didn't even last three years.
When pop songstress Shakira first started, nobody bet on her success. Investing on her was a very risky thing to do, since there was no certainty of her profitability. The only way in which any music label was to hire her was if the company got the most of the profits if the public did like her.
This is exactly what happened at the start of the Venezuelan oil production. Oil companies must engage in costly exploration and infrastructure building with an enormous uncertainty on their chances of finding oil. Before the oil production began, the 5 American oil companies cartel was not willing to accept anything bellow the agreement. The crossroad for the Gómez regime was actually pretty easy, since it was either accept the terms and bring the Foreign investment, or continue to be the Banana Republic we surely were.
Once a star, the second contract that Shakira signed was much more profitable for her than the first one, but she still worked with a Music Label to coordinate her productive musical career. Once Venezuela was proven to have enormous oil reserves, the contracts were reviewed on the governments of Gral. López Contreras and Gral. Medina Angarita (The latter established the famous 50-50 oil income rate), but the oil contractors still ran the industry with the technology and know how that only they had. Sadly, once Venezuela became fully democratic in 1958, a populist approach of "All the oil to the people" justified pressures over the oil companies. This process led to the nationalization of the industry in 1976, which left the country without the capital (Both human and financial) to exploit and refine our extra heavy oil reserves.
Dictatorship is a threat to diversity and multi ethnicity
This requires the identification of only one group as the sole owner of a country and the elimination, marginalization, or subjugation (physical, cultural, etc) of all other groups.
This method requires a brutal dictatorship not only to eliminate and oppress the other groups but also all those in the designated dominant group who are liberal, social democrat, and humanitarian who oppose genocide, ethnic cleansing and discrimination.
Even the best-claimed example of dictatorship country from the proposition team, China, was not clean from this. The Tibet freedom [[http://www.friends-of-tibet.org.nz/occu.html]], and the latest conflict in Xinjiang [[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/8135203.stm]] are among the examples.
Thus, we believe that dictatorship is not the best path for development, because the development of dictator country is a single face development, who focus on the wealth development of the majority, and neglects the rights and welfare of the minority.
There are many examples in history were democracies have ruled in discriminatory ways.The very first democracy known, Athens, sustained their experiment on direct democracy on the work of thousands of slaves (A history of political thought: from ancient Greece to early Christianity by Janet Coleman [[http://books.google.com/books?id=S8lamu73s08C&pg=PA198&lpg=PA198&dq=ancient+greeks+slavery&source=bl&ots=pUj4heOTBT&sig=JHirDk_KgnHNbrDIbcw2FYQUc4Y&hl=en&ei=-9iGSqPHOc2ptgeimtjnDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10#v=onepage&q=ancient%20greeks%20slavery&f=false )]]
The paragon of democracy, The United States of America, lived in a segregated society just some 4 decades ago. Not only that but, “discrimination against blacks in America is not an accident but rather a product of governmental policy and judicial mandates as reflected in patterns of community development.”,( American apartheid: segregation and the making of the underclass By Douglas S. Massey, Nancy A. Denton [[http://books.google.com/books?id=uGslMsIBNBsC&printsec=frontcover&dq=racial+segregation+united+states&ei=a8uGSs2xA57CzQTl_YXvDQ&client=firefox-a#v=onepage&q=racial%20segregation%20united%20states&f=false)]] More recent examples include the democratic India where “Caste is India’s hidden apartheid,” says Martin Macwan, 41, convenor of the National Campaign on Dalit Human Rights.( Gopal Guru, with Shiraz Sidhva. [[http://www.unesco.org/courier/2001_09/uk/doss22.htm)]].
Fiji’s democratic government also has a deep problematic with ethnic segregation. A United Nations-sponsored seminar to draw up a People’s Strategy for Peace, Stability and Development in Fiji has found that segregation along ethnic lines is a key concern.[[http://www.rnzi.com/pages/news.php?op=read&id=23319]] Furthermore the opposition's concerns over dictatorships as focusing on the development of the majority, while neglecting the rights and welfare of the minority, are absolutely applicable to democracies which are “the rule of the majority".
In any case the only interesting point of your argument for the debate would be that the dictatorships care about the welfare of the majority promoting development for a majority of people.
Dictatorship transforms national policies into irregularities
The needs of the citizen is ever changing (the world is ever changing!) but how is this met when the dictator cannot accelerate with the people's needs? Dictatorship does not hear the aspiration of the people; it only relies on their 'wisdom'. Because dictatorship rules without the people's consent, there is no urgency for them to hear their citizen.
On other words, being bad or good is only determined by the dictator itself, no form of control that can guide the dictator's policies or enlightened the dictators about current and future conditions. Dictators don’t listen and doesn't act based on people's aspiration.
A good development cannot bear on these irregularities, development needs a system that has good mechanism that implements the people aspiration, legislating the law to regulate it, having a body that execute it, and examining the process of execution.
That is why because we believe that the essence of development is sustainable development, we do not believe that this can be achieved by Dictatorship - a form of government which is not stable,l doesn't have a succession and shows irregularities in its policies.
Sometimes people don't aspire necessarily to development or don't know how to get to it. And then it's a good thing to impose them the changes. Turkish ruler Kemal Ataturk, decreed his way into modernization and development for his people. Those were no popular changes. They ranged from the abolition of the Califate (Islamic Papacy) that were purely about modernizing to others that were a push for development as the one that happened in "1930—Ford assembly plant opened near Istanbul and President Kemal launched a nation-wide program of building roads on which U. S. cars of all price classes predominate."[[http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,746241-2,00.html]]. By stating that "dictatorship does not hear the aspiration of the people; it only relies on their 'wisdom'. Because dictatorship rules without the people's consent, there is no urgency for them to hear their citizen." the try to say that because there is a dictatorship, the ruler cannot know what the people need. But we have talked about incentives of dictatorships to have objective information for good decisions. This objective data includes number of hospitals, mortality rate, etc and excludes popularity rate. Its perfectly possible to know the economic, health, education, income and productivity indicators and they can evaluate their policies using (performance indexes.Of course if they were to need it, dictatorships are specially apt to extract information from people because they don't have to care about privacy. We surmise that by irregularity the opposition means variability which is really flexibility. And we have explained in our yes point no. 7 that dictatorships have more flexibility on the subject of economic policy because "dictatorships can define and establish a pro-investment legal and institutional framework (e.g. Low taxes, subsidies, ensuring economical liberties) without facing the boundaries that a Democracy encounters on it's political process".
Good development should ensures freedom
The strong national defence in Burma maybe a signal of development in Burma, but does it comes from the citizens? What does actually Burmese wants? We cannot explain what the Burmese wants and put it as a citation, because NO ONE in the world except them knows. Their aspirations and freedom has been locked up by the dictatorship regime.
The same things happen to any of the countries that is led by the dictator. We cannot say that they are having development, because we do not know whether they enjoy their freedom or not. The means of development was seen through the numbers, but the ends, the freedom to do what they please, is still a luxury for them.
Development occurs when a dictatorship revert into democracy
Started from 1987 when the martial law erased, to 1989 when the multi party elections happened in Taiwan, Taiwan went to the democratization path.[[http://www.wowessays.com/dbase/ae4/lmy76.shtml]]. The democratization happen as a result of better condition of economic.(wachman, 1994:2001) [[http://books.google.co.id/books?id=Ovff0QA98kUC&pg=PA220&lpg=PA220&dq=democratization+and+economy+of+taiwan&source=bl&ots=9tYD1dZ-MY&sig=nqNUgz5G1iJSwaElW0gEbBc08sY&hl=id&ei=pI2GSqfdJ6jq6gOAt_z6Aw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7#v=onepage&q=&f=false]]
Because dictatorship has a limited path to development (due to their irregularities and instability) it can only reach certain level of development. To proceed, the country needs a more reliable system that can maintain the growth, put the government into an accountable position (where check and balances can be performed), and prevent the government from abusing its power.
Only then, when the momentum is strong enough for change, after the people has witnessed the flaw of dictatorship that it's people will revert to a more sustainable mechanism; Democracy. But it doesn't mean that dictatorship is a prerequisite to democracy.
The democratization allows a sustainable development to the middle class that is promisingly increase the income per capita.
This is evident in South Korea in early 1990s. In the 1987 democratization movement, the new middle strata (Jungsangch'eung) that sided with the democracy movement against the authoritarian regime initially joined the popular sector. With industrialization, urban white collar workers which constituted the bulk of the new middle strata, rapidly increase in number. (Kihl, 2004:75) [[http://books.google.co.id/books?id=yHLVt8d4SvMC&pg=PA75&dq=Korea+democratization+and+development#v=onepage&q=&f=false]] From the 1987 to 1991, when the democratization happened, the GNP per capita growth in South Korea was more than 100%, from $3.110 in 1987, to $6.498 in 1991. [[ibid]]
Dictatorship control the variables necessary to accelerate development and build the foundations for the changes in the country. The opposition put forward the case of South Korea that shows how once established and recognized the social order and a level of economic development a smooth transition can metamorphose into democracy continuing a sustainable growth.
"...later in 1987, when the Korean economy was in a non-crisis situation, with high growth rate and a current account surplus with low inflation, the authoritarian government opted-albeit out of the pressures exerted by political opposition and pro-democracy movement forces in the civil society- for "democratic opening." this illustrates that democratic transitions can occur in "good times" as well as in "hard times" http://books.google.co.id/books?id=yHLVt8d4SvMC&lpg=PA75&dq=Korea%20democratization%20and%20development&hl=es&pg=PA69#v=onepage&q=&f=false
In the case of Taiwan the same aspect can be evidence that lead to the transition into democratization: "It is not possible to know with certainty all that led to the political reforms of the late 1980s and 1990s. Typically, political analysts seek causes for the onset of political reform and often specify these causes in term of particular economic preconditions. Many of analysis have been published about the economic evolution that led to the "Taiwan Miracle" and the rise of Taiwan as one of the "four small dragons" in East Asia. The sequence of changes on Taiwan apparently bolsters the idea that economic development in authoritarian regimes leads to political and social pluralism, which brings with it demands for the liberalization of the authoritarian regime under which the economic development was managed. Indeed, many of the socioeconomic facts that theorists generally consider the affect the emergence of democratization, such as "high levels of urbanization, industrialization, rising per capita income, high literacy rates, and mass communication" can be observed on Taiwan. "These socioeconomic factors evidently have influenced teh political climate on the island" [[http://books.google.co.id/books?id=Ovff0QA98kUC&lpg=PA220&ots=9tYD1dZ-MY&dq=democratization%20and%20economy%20of%20taiwan&pg=PA221#v=onepage&q=&f=false]]
_-= * SuM|v|4|2Y * =-_
We would like to start the summation by reviewing the proposition arguments. In the debate they have deliver three opinions about dictatorship;1) that the dictator could establish any policy they want 2) is cheaper than democracy, and 3) has better control. The rest of the arguments were irrelevant. Let us review it, starting with the irrelevant:
1. Dictatorships breed development though efficient and straightforward decision making
2. Dictatorships better control the variables of human development
3. Dictatorships regimes can be a path for countries move on from civil wars and focus on development
For these three arguments, just by reviewing the proposition statements, it is clear that those are irrelevant. Let see the first two. Once stating that the decision making will be efficient and straightforward, in defending the better control on variables of human development it was revealed that dictators actually did not always get optimal results, and this failure or success comes from their decisions.
It indicates that there is nothing superior with the decision making by the dictator. There are advantages on control, and the ease of making decision (because no one controls them). These are advantages on decision making process, but it was clearly did not result on better decision.
The weakness is on the lack of check and balances in the dictatorial government, enables the dictator to control anything, except the result. For the last argument, the evidence show how the civil war was ended by dictatorship, but no evidence directs it to a better development. So, these arguments may be true, but to link it back as supporting arguments of the motions is clearly wrong.
4. Dictatorships have flexibility in economic policy that breeds growth
5. Dictatorships resist to income Redistribution Pressures
6. The longer lasting and biggest economic miracles have occurred under dictatorships
7. Dictatorship outperforms democracy in growth and economic development
If a sparrow always appears in the funerals, can we conclude that the sparrow is the grim reaper? If we follow the proposition's way of deduction, the answer is YES. While they propose to reject bad stigma to the dictators (which is respected by us), on the same time they lost the neutrality, putting dictators as a smart leader, taking a better decision than other.
They claimed it is dictators who can settle pro-investment legal and institutional framework (e.g. Low taxes, subsidies, ensuring economical liberties), the only one who can resist from redistribution pressure, performs good economy policy, and by giving China and India as example, claiming dictatorship outperforms democracy (which was a wrong example, since it was all about economic policy).
For them, those are a natural characteristic of a dictatorship, for us it is just a random coincidence. If all good things that was claimed is really a natural character of a dictatorship, then we should not have witnessed the hyperinflation in Zimbabwe or the irregularities in Burma.
We are not going to play the same game as them, by concluding dictatorship just from the examples of Zimbabwe and Burma. We see all the examples as a whole, and by doing so we believe those cases just brings to us one fact, that dictator can do anything, and can decide anything. The result is varied from the economic miracle, to monstrous hyperinflation.
8. Dictatorship is a more economic institution: elections are a luxury reserved for developed countries.
9. A dictatorship breeds order and it's a needed step for both development and liberal democracy.
Maybe the only person that is happy for these arguments is Brad Pitt. But Pitt should wait for it , since he is not a dictator who can skip the election. As the opposition, we did not really concern on the case whether the dictatorship was cheaper or not, since there are no evidence that the cheaper government will do better development.
10. Dictators have incentives to promote development and diminish social differences
11. Dictatorship is a good breeding ground for personal discipline and order
12. Dictatorship helps achieve social stability
The last aspect of the dictators is that they have bigger control. This control allows them to promote development and diminish social differences. But it should be noticed, that democratic country can do the same thing. Moreover, from the motives it is done, social benefits in democracy is inbuilt in the power mechanisms of “one man – one vote” and form inevitable nature of society. On the other hand, dictatorship's incentives are merely formed according to an arbitrary judgment, prudence and free will of dictator.
On viewing dictatorship as a good breeding ground for personal discipline and order, the proposition takes Taiwan as an example. Yes, Taiwan was once a under dictatorship, but it was before 1990s. The example they brought was Taiwan success on 2007 [[http://www.bls.gov/news.release/prod4.nr0.htm]]. Their examples lead us to believe that it is democracy, not dictatorship that is a good breeding ground for personal discipline, as John Dewey proposed.
At last, social stability that is proposed by dictatorship has a serious threat. The problem that is proposed was not fundamental, because it happened under bad management in Mexico, not because of the flaws on the system itself. Contrary to Mexico, Yugoslavia dictatorship stability was shaken, even though it is in a good management. When Josip Broz Tito died, the country's history ended. It is showed that while the democracy's succession failure was a case-based failure, dictatorship's failure is a systemic failure.
SUMMARY OF THE OPPOSITION
Obviously this debate was created to prove that dictatorship is the BEST PATH to development. Countries such as those of Burma, Iran, and Honduras should be accepted as a valid form of government by the democratic countries. Or at least that was what we thought it would be.
The debate started by “irregularities” in the proposition arguments and definition (lacking one) that forced us to create a definition for a Dictatorship in the first phase. However, after realizing that the proposition will not take the direction of this debate according to the spirit of the motion, we opt to silence the opposition by releasing 8 of our own arguments against their case. In summary there is no question that we believe "DICTATORSHIP IS NEVER THE BEST PATH TO DEVELOPMENT, for three simple reasons.
1. Dictatorships are unstable.
Development needs stability, and dictatorship is never a stable form of government. There lays, in a dictatorship, a certain characteristic that creates instability. For example, a dictatorship lacks a mechanism to control its policies thus creating irregularities within the countries or that a dictatorship doesn't have a clear succession method between governments. By definition alone a dictatorship breeds dissent from the people they govern, since dictatorship uses repression to gain loyalty. Those elements of a dictatorship create a question mark regarding the government, whether or not it will provide stability in the country and the government.
It is not surprising then that other country found it risky to lend these dictatorships capital or for foreign companies to build factory or infrastructure, thus curbing the level of development within the country.
2. Dictatorship has other priority
Dictatorship number one priority is to stay in power. This is probably the only form of stability a dictatorship can offer, a stable personality as a leader. This ultimately puts the development of the country in question, since for the sake of power dictatorship has been proved to place a high tax upon the people (due to the increase of their military and security budget). This situation can never attain development, where the definition of development for dictatorship is the development of their Might and Right.
3. Dictatorship was never responsible for any development
There has been some 'propaganda' to mislead readers regarding the merits of dictatorship. Certainly the readers can see through those façade, though there is no wrong in assuming the worst has happened. We want to emphasized that there is no question that there was never a country that achieve development due to dictatorship as a form of government.
We can argue that, development occurs because of a good economic policy, for example the China free market policy. But we should underline that free market policy can be done with any form of government, and is not a system that is exclusively attached to dictatorship. Any countries with any system can manage it. "Development" may also come from the regional growth, where the economy of the country, regardless of the political system, to get the advantage.
We can see that economic growth in East Asia has nothing to do with dictatorship. Even, after the democratization, the GNP per capita in South Korea increase for more than 100%.
We should also notice that although an economy may grow, but can we consider it a best path of development? By a greater average volume of GNP than democratic countries, GNP per capita of dictatorship country was surprisingly lower than democratic country. It means that the economic growth is not enjoyed by most of the people. The gap may be used by the dictator to his and his clique’s personal assets, or to increase their military budget, to protect them from both foreign or local attack.
Having stated all of the above, it is clearly evident that the proposition has no standing case and that although dictatorship continues to run some countries of the worlds, we shall not, as witness to a democratic system accept reasoning that dictatorship is the best path to development. That it is in our best interest as the future of this world to promote democracy, freedom, and development of the world. So those that may not enjoy it today, can live knowing that their children or their children's children will one day enjoy freedom under a developed democratic state. Therefore we beg to oppose.
Central Planning and Mass killings