The American Pledge of Allegiance has been embroiled in controversy ever since the phrase "under God" was added by Congress in 1954, following a campaign by the Knights of Columbus to change it. The Pledge, as it was conceived initially by Francis Bellamy in 1892, did not include the phrase. It read


This debate is whether Antartica's resources should be exploited (as is currently with fishing and tourism) or should not even these be exploited. The Proposition model is to disregard the Antartic Treaty (and its claims) and instead establish Antartica as a common heritage of mankind (as is the pos


With the recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, there has been outrage at BP's lack of planning which led to this environmental disaster. However, only some of the blame can lie with BP - similar disasters litter the history of offshore drilling (such as the Ixtoc 1 spill in the Gulf of Mexico 30 y


The war on terrorism that started after 9/11 is still ongoing. It goes through name changes but the core of the conflict remains the same; we are involved in a conflict against a nebulous group of terrorists. This is neither a war in the conventional sense, nor is it winnable in the conventional sen


Young drivers, and even older ones, cause many fatal accidents; raising the minimum age at which people can drive might reduce this, but is it a benefit to society, and are the statistics true? We can help lower the accident rates if the driving age is raised to 18 so no more kids can get hurt or ki


When the term minority group is mentioned most people tend to picture a group of people who are disadvantaged because of their small numerical number in relation to a larger group but this is not always the case as the term minority group describes a category of people who have unequal access to pos


nuclear weapon states possess over 25000 nuclear weapons. Some states continue to rely on nuclear weapons for their security, while others seek them to dominate their neighbors or gain and maintain great power status. Should they be banned, or shoud we accept reality and learn to "love the bomb?"


The line item veto is a debate that is only really relevant to the United States. The US Constitution gives Congress, as the legislative branch of government the power of the purse. This means that all taxation and spending decisions (appropriations of federal government money for particular purpose


Young students eager to better themselves as people are facing crippling debts after they leave university unless they are born of a very wealthy family. This ensures that the wealth stays with the families who have always had it. Worse still is the number of young people denied the chance of univer


In his column on the BBC's website Professor Terence Stephenson has called for parents to be stopped from smoking in cars. If his calls were enacted it would be the latest in a long line of restrictions passed on smokers. But is it time to do away completley with the tradition of having a "ciggie" s


Many argue that the European Union (EU) has become an unaccountable, undemocratic federation with too many powers. Is it wrong that EU directives (EU law) supersedes British law? Is it right to have free labour movements between 27 states when the UK is suffering a recession?


Ireland has posed a major political issue for Britain for centuries. It has centred around the desire of nationalists for an independent country which still hasn't been settled. Northern Ireland over the past decade has found a strong basis for peace and has prospered massively economically. The iss


Many countries today have laws that prohibit smoking in public places because it affects non smokers as well. This damages their health against their will and could cause them lung cancer. But also it seems as though this law protects only one side and public places (which should be available to eve