The United States Operation Uphold Democracy in Haiti was a Cleanup of a Failed Intervention.
Operation Uphold Democracy was a military and political operation in which the US, under Clinton's Administration, was responding to a coup that the CIA was initially involved in during the George H.W. Bush's Administration. Eight months after Aristide was elected, through a fair and democratic way, there was a coup d'etat against the government in which Aristide was overthrown. The CIA had believed the government of Haiti was involved with a huge illegal drug operation, so it was the best time to do this. After the coup, Haiti was left in shambles and left without any successful way of governing. When Clinton was elected, the government and the military worked with Aristide to bring back democracy and uphold it in Haiti. Their first steps of action was going into Haiti and removing the false government. Over the next year, both Aristide and The US worked together to put up a democratic government in place and enforce it by remaining there until they could see that the Haitian government had control of its country and politics.
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A legal government was overthrown and replaced with a false regime. The United States stepped in to right a wrong that was done. Classifies as just cause.
On September 19th 1991 a coup took place in Haiti in which the current president of Haiti Jean Aristide was forced out of office by the haitian army. He was legally and rightfully elected as president from the general election 8 months earlier. The coup was led by Raoul Cedras who was the Army General, he was working with the Army chief of staff Philippe Biamby and the chief of national police Michel Francois. Aristide was sent into exile and would have died if not for the United States diplomats intervention. A widely accepted belief is that Aristide was overthrown due to his actions against the drug trade and his upcoming policies being made to lock down on drug traders and working towards finding and end to it. After he was removed from office his replacement crippled all of the efforts to control drugs and that the chief of the national police of Haiti was seen personally supervised the unloading of drugs and weapons from airplanes.
The United States went into Haiti with the right intentions in mind.
The United States was just in their reasons for stepping in because not everyone in Haiti wanted the old government overthrown and replaced with the new leaders. Aristide was voted into office and so people in the country did support him. The United States was also just in their reasons for entering because the problems in Haiti was creating an unsafe environment for the people of Haiti. The United States was in favor of democracies and Aristide was voted into office from a general election where as the new leader was simply put into power. It was protecting the interests of the United States by them entering Haiti and removing the false regime. The United States had plenty of reasons for entering the war and between all of the different reasons we can conclude that they had just cause for operation uphold democracy.
The United States Central Intelligence under the George H.W. Bush administration worked on an operation to eradicate drugs. They were part of a scheme to get to take Jean-Bertrand Aristide. Later under the Clinton administration United States felt since the government was corrupt the United States Congress and Military felt they were obligated to go in and act as police force. Before Bill Clinton went into Haiti he tried negotiating with Raoul Cedras before he entered Haiti this was unsuccessful. This shows that entering Haiti was a last resort and they had no other option to clean up the mess that was made under previous administration.
The Legitimate Authority
According to the United States Constitution the President must get approval from the United States Congress before he declares war on a country. Bill Clinton did follow this protocol, he got approval from the United States Congress. The Congress wanted to make this a quick in and out mission that would not take to long, this was not the case. The Congress was however open to the mission taking as long as it needed. The United States felt the need to go into Haiti and try to fix the mistakes from the past. President Bill Clinton was allied with Jean-Bertrand Aristide, and Clinton wanted the United States to become allies with Haiti, this was another reason that Clinton felt he needed to go into Haiti and clean up the mess. They were successful and went through all the steps that were needed in order to have the legitimate authority to go into Haiti and fix the problem.
Proportionality and Causalities
The ones who died during the operation, were those who did not believe in the process to uphold who were killed for acting out and speaking up or were those who overthrew aristide in the first place. The soldiers were there to keep things moving orderly but there were times with riots where incidents occurred. Aristide still had a lot of support in Haiti within and out of the government, so when coming up with the idea for the plan, he made sure he would end up with as much support as possible to make the transition into a democratic state as smooth as possible. Things needed to happen to change Haiti. With the coup that overthrew Aristide, they did it because they believed that his government was responsible for the secretive drug importing and exporting that went on. In all actuality, it was Aristide who was trying to clean it up and make it safe, and that it was the coup leaders who were apart of the drug smuggling.
Aristide and Clinton worked together to create The Operation in knowing since the people favorited Aristide that people would support the plan. Haiti was before in a democratic state with Arestides first election. It wouldn't be hard to implement since it was there before and they would just have to implement it once more. Even though Haiti was most split on the type of government, the enforcement of Haiti was not hard at all. Using all of the military that they had to regulate things like with the government by creating laws and just reforming Haiti's economy during the time. This whole operation start was known as the Operation New Horizons where US led forces from the UN went around South America to help other countries in the ways that they need help
The peace established after the war must be preferable to the peace that would have prevailed if the operation had not happened.
The United States was acting out of their own selfish intent as usual. The United States assumed that the people of Haiti wanted the government system and leader that they had already and they did not want the change. The Haitian people were obviously not happy with the way things were going in the country if there was a coup. The United States decided to act in their country with force when they were not invited and they were not needed. The country was functioning fine with the new leader. The United States went into the country and as a result several hundred people were killed and it caused yet again another shift in leadership in the country and it threw the people for another change.
In order for a war to be a just war and the United States to be cleaning up a failed intervention there would need to be evidence of a failed intervention. The new government system was working fine, yes the leader was not elected by the people but the country was not in turmoil due to the change and people were not being shot down. The people of Haiti wanted their country to be a peaceful place and it is true there was fighting for a brief period when the army took Aristide out of government but once the new leader was put in place the country was peaceful again. The United States has not just done this in Haiti, they have gone into things that they did not need to and the end result has been far worse than if they had just done nothing in the first place. The United States always thinks about the best for itself instead of considering that the people that live there do not want the United States to do anything and they would much prefer to be left to themselves.
Was there really legitimate authority?
Although the United States was involved in the mess that was made in Haiti, several Haitians were also involved. Several Haitians wanted Jean-Bertrand Aristide out of power and wanted a new leader. President Bill Clinton of the United States created Operation Uphold Democracy with Aristide who was the former president of Haiti. They planned to get rid of the government that was in place and put Aristide back into power. This was unjust because the United States should of let the people of Haiti decide what happens to the government, the United States should not be deciding who the president or leader of Haiti should be. The United States under the George H.W. Bush administration should not have went in and taken Aristide out of power, that was unjustified. The CIA said they were in Haiti to stop drug smuggling and they ended up taking Aristide out of power. That did not go through Congress, so there was no legitimate authority.
In the operation, a total of 4 US Soldiers Died from non-violent actions. To be more specific, they died from things like diseases and injuries. On the Haitian side of the operation, hundreds died from protests and other riots that occurred from the operation. The whole operation was to be peaceful from start to finish. Aristide and the US knew that restoring Democracy would take a lot of forces so they had the Navy, Air Force and the Army of not only the US, but other supporting countries of the operation. At this time the US no longer wanted any immigration of the sort of they told all of their army that if they were to catch anyone trying emigrate that they were to stop them and return them to their homes. Instead soldiers took out boats of them and just killed them when they tried to leave. Again this was a way from the United States to Protect their interests and this was really just an opportunity to start again with intervening with other countries and their problems and fixing them with Democracy. More and More events starting happening since they realized that with some UN aid backing them they could try to do almost anything and spread their democratic views everywhere. With Operation New Horizons going underway after Haiti, the US stepped up to lead this force because of only being in it for its own economic interest and to achieve allies with the countries they helped. Instead of using just the military they are used branches of the government like the USDA and The United States Agency for International Development.
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