Nations Should Guarantee Refugee Status To All North Korean Defectors
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Totalitarianism is a political system where the country seeks to govern their people in all aspects. North Korea has been using this political system since 1948 after its' formal declaration of independence. Known for their harsh conditions and rigid laws, North Korea is considered one of the top countries that violate human rights. For this reason citizens flee to China, South Korea, Mongolia, etc. But it isn't an easy journey, most countries don't guarantee refugee status and if caught they could be evacuated back to North Korea where imprisonment and possible execution awaits them.
Lack of food and everyday supplies, unable to pursue small businesses or other economic developments, and the inability to freely express their views without government interference are one of the many reasons that North Koreans flee.
According to the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights' Article 2: "Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty."[[http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/#atop]], other countries should try to help the refugees in any way possible.
By guaranteeing refugee status to fleeing North Koreans it may help to save many lives.
The point made by the proposition appears to be somewhat ambiguous. It appears that they are attempting to argue that ‘all’ North Korean defectors should be granted refugee status on the basis that their human rights are being violated, or because they may face various difficulties which may affect their standard of living.
We concur that Human Rights violations are one of the very many reasons for defections. Those defecting due to human rights violations should undeniably be granted refugee status. But not ‘all’ of the defectors fall in to this category. Those who defect in the pursuit of better social welfare, economic betterment, or other factors, which do not contravene one’s human rights, should not be granted refugee status. The prospect of lucrative welfare programmes, greater opportunities and greater financial incentives attract thousands of N.Koreans to neighbouring states every year, encouraging them to defect. There are many examples of N.Korean citizens defecting, merely in order to obtain a more rewarding lifestyle in other states. One example is that of Lee Chong-guk, a financially stable, famous chef at Pyongyang’s most renowned restaurant; who left N.Korea in order to establish his own restaurant chain in S.Korea.
The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights does not cover those citizens who defect in pursuit of economic betterment, as was the case with Lee [[http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/#atop]]. Its role is not to encourage economic opportunism, but rather to protect one’s human rights and for that reason, it does not extend so far as to cover 'all' defectors. Therefore not ‘all’ defectors should be granted refugee status, as put forward by the proposition.
Lackness of food and everyday supplies makes hundreds of people to defect from North Korea
In North Korea there is almost no small businesses. Because of strict governmental control and centralized trade. There is less possibility to develop small companies. The government influences in all level of the civil life and always watches them. And the importing goods are expensive than in other countries. And GDP per capita is $1800 which is almost 16 times less than South Korea.
North Korean government gives out the food per person. The fact says that 150 grammes of food are cut per person every day [[http://www.nkeconwatch.com/category/dprk-organizations/state-offices/public-distribiution-system-pds/]] The average male who takes an exercise less than 30 min /age between 19-30/ should eat 2400 calories per day. But in the fact shows [[http://www.nkeconwatch.com/category/dprk-organizations/state-offices/public-distribiution-system-pds/]] one hundred grammes of rice can give only 250-350 calories.
People in N.Korea always faces the problem of food shortages. But government makes it more difficult. We only see the some of the problems. Not all of them..
The proposition contends that ‘all’ N.Korean defectors should be granted refugee status due to the Nation’s economic position. This is not only unfeasible, but also undesirable. They attempt to justify granting every single N.Korean who wishes to defect, ‘refugee status’ by quoting N.Korea’s GDP, and benchmarking their purchasing power against Asia’s 4th wealthiest nation, South Korea [[http://www.aneki.com/asia_richest.htm]].
If one was to employ this rationale when deciding who is worthy of being guaranteed ‘refugee status’, then every single Somali, Ethiopian, Malawian, or any person from the 128 countries whose GDP is lower than that of N.Korea [[https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/]], or people from nations which faces ‘the problem of food shortages’ should qualify. Such action would mean that over 1 billion people around the world would qualify for ‘refugee status’. The solution to poverty, poor living conditions and low levels of economic growth does not lie in the softening of immigration policy. For this reason guaranteeing ‘refugee status’ and implementing such policy is undesirable and cannot be justified under these grounds.
Summary /team Mongolia2 /
The debate was about Nations should guarantee refugee status to North Korean defectors. According to debate we had to talk about “defectors” from North Korea not the other country which are facing food shortages or violating Human Rights. Also the mentioned by the word “Nations” we should talk about all the countries in the world except North Korea will decide if they grant refugee status to defectors.
Here are the points we gave firstly in the introduction to prove that Guaranteeing refugee status to defectors from North Korea is right:
-Lack of food and everyday supplies.
-Unable to pursue small businesses or other economic developments.
-Inability to freely express their views without government interference.
By these problems people are defecting from North Korea.
The opposition team gave some points that is was wrong. But we had a solution to this problem.
First point was about not the all of the defectors must have refugee status because of security. But by the fact we all know that the defectors are mostly families and the poor people who need better life condition. Also the crimes done by spies went to other country /Japan, South Korea/ was not heard after 20th century, all the facts were before 1990’s. We proved that all the defectors have a right to be protected by that country according to Universal Human Rights.
Next point was refugees will burden the neighbor countries’ economy. But actually it’s not as bad as this. In America refugees take job which real Americans reject. By the fact most of the North Korean defectors are unskilled workers so they won’t reject any job they have, in order to live. Filling the jobs will influence to that country’s economy more greater. And also they pay taxes so there is nothing to worry about economic burden.
At last opposition gave us the point that was about defecting leads to the harder life. We gave a fact about China. Defectors to China get really hard life because China doesn’t give them refugee status. The defectors considered as a illegal economic migrants, and forced to go to North Korea. When they sent back they face torture and execution. By this we can see that if they guarantee their refugee status they would live protected by the law.
Finally we see that guaranteeing the refugee status to North Korean defectors is right..
Granting 'all' North Korean defectors refugee status would compromise the security of neighbouring nations.
A large number of N.Korean defectors seek refuge in neighbouring nations, particularly in their wealthy capitalist neighbour, S.Korea. Among these defectors are North Korean military personnel and spies sent to these nations to carry out orders sent by Pyongyang.
Relations between the two Koreas have been tense since their partition. Spies posing as defectors are, and have been sent to S.Korea to extract intelligence and carry out the assassinations of S.Korean officials and N.Korean defectors. As was the case in the attempted assassination of Hwang Jang-yop, a former high ranking N.Korean official who defected to S.Korea [[http://rokdrop.com/2010/04/21/south-korea-arrests-north-korean-spies-behind-an-assassination-plot/]] . Similarly, in the assassination of Choe Deok-geun, a S.Korean consular official for the Russian Far East was believed to have been assassinated by N.Korean operatives posing as defectors. Pyongyang is believed to have sent hundreds of women to China, in order to spy on foreign government officials and business people.
These examples illustrate how N.Korea has manipulated defections and the ‘refugee status’ label to stealthily send N.Koren spies and assassins to its regional neighbours, without detection. As a result, its neighbours have had their sovereignty infringed.
The incidents mentioned have been carried out under the current system, whereby not all nations grant defectors the refugee status. However, the international community’s adoption of this motion would enable ‘all’ of 24,457,492 N.Koreans refugee status upon defection. As a result, mass migration of N.Koreans migrating to neighbouring countries would be encouraged; this would make it more difficult for foreign nations to detect spies. N.Korea could send more operatives with ease. This would inadvertently encourage N.Korea to commit a greater number of violations under international law. Thus, put more lives at risk and compromising nations’ security.
According to the South Korean spy 2 years ago N.Korea’s economy has wrecked because of weak system then several humanitarian agencies helped by food and services. [[http://www.hrw.org/en/world-report-2011/north-korea]] People can see this kind of conditions a lot of times in government-controlled judiciary country. Tight controlled society can’t be free and develop. Only Lee Chong-guk can’t represent defected N.Koreans with many reasons from their country.
Most of countries attempt to send their spies to risky and influential countries such as N.Korea and Russia to know secrets of fields. Therefore it’s hard to suspect only N.Korean defectors are spies. Maybe people mostly distrust N.Korea that leads by military system based government and has Nuclear weapons.
Freedom of information is not established because of harsh organization. Citizens are getting restricted information from state-controlled media and broadcasting companies. If company broadcast TV program that include little thing against government then they will punish.
UN’s rules don’t have to cover all defectors. It doesn’t matter why some people are using these rules for their interest. UN Human rights council wants to know there’s someone can carry, help and protect their rights in other nation to people who couldn’t feel their freedom and lost position on society.[[http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrcouncil/]]
Granting refugee status would further burden regional neighbours, particularly S.Korea.
Some N.Korean defectors who have had their human rights violated should be entitled to refugee status, in order to protect their universal human rights. “Requesting refugee status for them in the context of international law is therefore palpable”1. However, for nations to grant refugee status to all North Korean defectors, regardless of whether or not their rights have been violated. As the motion requires, would result in an economic and political minefield.
The Increasing number of N.Korean defectors places a heavy burden on the local taxpayers and places strain on public services. The N.Koreans who successfully make it to S.Korea are awarded a lump sum, which in the past has been as much as US $100,000 depending on various factors such as providing valuable intelligence .The average defector does indeed receive much less. The financial incentive, automatic citizenship a common language, customs, culture and ethnic ties makes S.Korea an attractive location for N.Korean defectors to settle.
If this policy is adopted it will no doubt set a precedent, therefore encouraging N.Koreans to defect to any nation granting refugee status. Which in reality would mean nations would potentially have to accommodate 24 million refugees2. The mass immigration of North Koreans already burdens the economy of countries receiving N.Korean refugees. According to Asian Times Online, N.Korean refugees are not faring well in S.Korea. Their average income is roughly half that of the national average. They do not have many useful skills, and therefore, receive little pay.3 In recent times, nations such as S.Korea have found it difficult to facilitate the 20,000 N.Korean defectors which have settled there. In light of this, granting refugee status to all defectors would create an unsustainable position for neighboring countries, particularly S.Korea who could potentially be burdened with 24 million defectors.
Firstly we can see from [[www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL34189.pdf]] that population in of N.Koreans in China is between 30'000 to 50'000 by the year of 2006. There is no exact number of population about N.Korean defectors and it is just number of people who found. There are many of them hiding. In 2010 the number of defectors in S.Korea from N.Korea reached 20'000. But it's not as much as defectors to China. From this we can see S.Korea is not the most suitable country for N.Korean defectors.
Next thing is increasing number of defectors can be good for S.Korean economy. The reason is we can grant them a refugee status under the law. It means refugees will pay taxes for having civil rights and owning wealth. The refugees may have less useful skills, but we can consider from this that refugees won't reject any job because they need job to earn money. We can see the example of status of refugee in America [[http://www.mvrcr.org/content/faq.php]] They pay all taxes and the do jobs which are rejected by Americans. And they become a great support for American economy. It is just one example of solution we can make.
And also abcNEWS says that S.Korean government started a project to help S.Korean defectors and unify the Korea. [[http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=13789864]]
As these points we can see that refugees in S.Korea can't burden neighbour countries especially S.Korea.
A one way ticket to a life of hardship.
Under N.Korean Law defectors who return home to N.Korea face indefinite prison sentences, or in many cases even execution. Therefore, defecting reduces their chances of ever seeing their family and friends again. Those who defect are treated like exiles. If ‘refugee status’ were granted to all defectors there is no doubt that more N.Koreans would attempt to defect. This will inadvertently put more N.Korean lives at risk. The N.Korean government executes many of those caught attempting to defect, and for many years has put into place a ‘shoot on site’ policy in the case of defectors. [[http://www.northkoreanow.org/the-crisis/those-who-flee-north-korean-refugees/]].
If defectors are able to successfully defect without being caught, their presence in neighbouring countries will have an impact on the current populace of that nation. The presence of up to 24 million N.Koreans will create greater pressure on governments to provide jobs, a demand which governments may not be able to facilitate. A surplus of unskilled workers will allow employers to lower wages [[http://www.sparknotes.com/economics/micro/labormarkets/labordemand/section1.html]]; this may put local unskilled workers out of work, as their N.Korean counterparts will be more inclined to accept lower wages. Thus, creating resentment towards refugees who may then become the victims of discrimination. Hence, making it more difficult for N.Koreans to integrate. For this reason, many N.Korean defectors will be condemned to a life of greater hardship, in a foreign country with very little prospects.
Granting refugee status to all N.Koreans is not the solution to eradicating the problems that the nation and the people face. For many N.Korean defectors, living conditions will inevitably be worse than those remaining in N.Korea. History has shown us that as a result of this, many will be left with no choice, other than to return home. Where an unknown fate, potentially the death penalty, awaits them.
The reason why North Koreans defecting, is just they are seeking for better life. All the defectors know that defecting is more dangerous and they also don’t want to leave their hometown. However the North Korean government is not providing a good life condition, so they are trying to flee.
The people who have been returned to the North Korea face torture. Most of the defectors are flee to China, but China’s security classifies them as “illegal economic migrants” [[http://www.northkoreanow.org/international-law/]] and force them to go back to North Korea. But this response to the defectors violates United Nations Refugee Convention which was ratified by China in 1982 and United Nations Convention Against Torture which was also ratified by China in 1988. [[http://www.northkoreanow.org/international-law/]]. Other defectors who successfully defected into China usually keep hiding and the children of the defectors don’t go to school in order to be not revealed. There are many facts about difficult life of hiding defectors. Guaranteeing refugee status to N.Korean defectors will give them an opportunity to live safe while having Human Rights and be protected by law.
And we already mentioned before that defectors who are unskilled workers won’t reject any kind of difficult jobs. They need income in order to buy food or other supplies. So refugees will do jobs which people of that country reject. So it has more positive influences to economy of that country.
Summary - Team England.
Contrary to the proposition’s contention, we argue that every single North Korean defector should not qualify for refugee status. Implementing such a proposition would require all defectors, regardless of their reasons for defecting to be allowed ‘refugee status’. There is of course no need for such action drastic action.
We recognise that North Korea has one of the worst human rights records in the world. As a result, it would be plausible to contend that those who defect in their endeavours to avoid persecution and ill treatment should be granted refugee status by the international community. However, as illustrated by our arguments, many North Koreans defect for different reasons, which are usually not out of necessity. The majority of these cases do not involve any human rights violation, but rather involve people leaving their native country in the pursuit of economic prosperity and a better standard of living.
As illustrated by the arguments put forward by the opposition, granting all North Koreans defectors refugee status to every single North Korean defector would have a detrimental effect on the North Korean population and the international community.
What do you think?